Wednesday, February 24, 2010

"Entomologia - A Group Show of Insect Art," Opening Party This Friday, Feburary 26, Observatory

"Four years of hard work in the darkness, and a month of delight in the sun - such is the Cicada's life. We must not blame him for the noisy triumph of his song. For four years he has dug the earth with his feet, and then suddenly he is dressed in exquisite raiment, provided with wings that rival the bird's, and bathed in heat and light. What cymbals can be loud enough to celebrate his happiness, so hardly earned, and so very, very short?" -Jean Henri Fabre
This Friday, Februrary 26th, Observatory will be launching our newest exhibition, "Entomologia - A Group Show of Insect Art," with an opening party running from 7-10 PM. I have a few pieces in the show, as do a number of artists I admire. This is sure to be a great show and an epic opening party. Really hope to see you there!

Details follow:
ENTOMOLOGIA - A Group Show of Insect Art
February 26th - April 4th, 2010

Opening: Friday, February 26; 7:00 - 10:00
Thursdays and Fridays 3-6; Saturdays and Sundays 12-6;

OBSERVATORY and Curious Expeditions' Michelle Enemark are delighted to announce "Entomologia," a group show of art incorporating and inspired by insects, on view from February 26th through April 4th.

"Four years of hard work in the darkness, and a month of delight in the sun - such is the Cicada's life. We must not blame him for the noisy triumph of his song. For four years he has dug the earth with his feet, and then suddenly he is dressed in exquisite raiment, provided with wings that rival the bird's, and bathed in heat and light. What cymbals can be loud enough to celebrate his happiness, so hardly earned, and so very, very short?" -Jean Henri Fabre


Jennifer Angus
Joianne Bittle
Catherine Chalmers
Joanna Ebenstein
Michelle Enemark
Judith Klausner
Barrett Klein
Shanna Maurizi
Herbert Pfostl
Brian Riley
Stacey Steers
Steve Thurston
James Walsh
Lisa Wood

Michelle Enemark is the creator of Curious Expeditions, a site devoted to traveling and exhuming the extraordinary past. Curious Expeditions was named a finalist for best travel blog in the 2008 Weblog Awards and received a 2009 Cliopatria Award. A motion graphics artist by trade, visual artist by training, and historian and naturalist by self appointment, Michelle aims to show the forgotten bits of the world, be they lost pieces of history, forgotten museums, or elements of the natural world that have been ignored or overlooked.

Jessica Oreck works as an animal keeper and docent at the American Museum of Natural History in NYC. When not at the museum, Jessica spends her time inventing new ways to create a sense of wonder in the world. Jessica just finished her first feature documentary, "Beetle Queen Conquers Tokyo." She is currently in production on several animated science shows, building her own museum exhibition, and pre-production for her next feature film, The Vanquishing of the Witch Baba Yaga.
For directions to Observatory, click here. To see the entire upcoming schedule, click here. To join the mailing list, click here. You can join Observatory on Facebook by clicking here.

Upcoming Antiquarian Medical Book Auction, Bloomsbury Auctions, March 10th

A lovely collection of antiquarian anatomical and medical books--specified as being "The Property of a Gentleman"--will be taking place on Wednesday, March 10th at Bloomsbury Auctions, London. Online bidding will also be available for those of us who, sadly, live far from London town.

To find out more, and see a complete list of lots, click here. To download a PDF of the catalog--from which the above images are drawn!--click here and then select "download pdf."

Monday, February 15, 2010

"Still Life: Adventures in Taxidermy" Book and Lecture

I have just been alerted to the publication of Still Life: Adventures in Taxidermy, a new book about the art and history of taxidermy written by New York City based journalist Melissa Milgrom. The book traces the rise and fall and rise again of taxidermy, and follows this arc from the artform's humble beginnings to its peculiar Victorian flowering as seen in the artistry of such masters as Walter Potter (above middle) to its current omnipresence in home decor and the fine arts. Along the way, Milgrom investigates "not only what drives the very best taxidermists in their desire for perfection, but why people in our era of ecological awareness and high technology still find taxidermy so alluring..."

From the book synopsis:
It's easy to dismiss taxidermy as a kitschy or morbid sideline, the realm of trophy fish and jackalopes or a throwback to the dusty diorama. Yet it is a world full of intrepid hunter-explorers, eccentric naturalists, and gifted museum artisans, all devoted to the paradoxical pursuit of creating the illusion of life.

Into this subculture of insanely passionate animal lovers ventures journalist Melissa Milgrom, whose journey stretches from the anachronistic family workshop of the last chief taxidermist for the American Museum of Natural History to the studio where an English sculptor preserves the animals for Damien Hirst's most disturbing artworks. She wanders through Mr. Potter's Museum of Curiosities to watch dealers vie for preserved Victorian oddities, and visits the Smithsonian's offsite lab, where taxidermists transform zoo skins into vivacious beasts. She tags along with a Canadian bear hunter—the three-time World Taxidermy Champion—as he recreates an extinct Irish Elk using DNA studies and Paleolithic cave art for reference; she even ultimately picks up a scalpel herself. Transformed from a curious onlooker to an empathetic participant, Milgrom comes to understand not only what drives the very best taxidermists in their desire for perfection, but why people in our era of ecological awareness and high technology still find taxidermy so alluring. Straddling science and art, high culture and kitsch—like taxidermy itself—STILL LIFE celebrates the beauty in the uncanny.
If this is of interest, you can find out more by visiting her website by clicking here; better yet, why not come hear Milgrom's lecture on the topic followed by a book-signing at on Wednesday, March 31st at Observatory? More on that event can be found here. To find out more about the book or to purchase a copy of your very own, click here. If you are interested in the work of Walter Potter, you can find out more here, but also please stay tuned for information about a lecture on his work sponsored by Observatory and taking place on Thursday April 15th.

The first two images you see above are from Melissa Milgrom's site (full credits follow). The bottom image is also featured in her book, and is drawn from the wonderful American Museum of Natural History online exhibition "Picturing The Museum: Education and Exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History" (as mentioned in these recent posts 1, 2) which you can see in its spectacular entirety by clicking here.

Image credits: Top: This orangutan, mounted in 2003 by a team of taxidermists for the Smithsonian Institution's Behring Hall of Mammals, typifies how exotic animals are procured in a post-expedition era. Photo: Cameron Davidson, from Middle: Victorian taxidermist Walter Potter's fabulous collection was auctioned off in 2003. "Cock Robin" (above) took Potter seven years to make and features 98 British birds in a funeral procession. from Bottom: James L. Clark mounting male Indian Lion, Original photographer Irving Dutcher or H.S.Rice, 1930; American Museum of Natural History, 313279.

Sunday, February 14, 2010

"Vanitas" Virtual Memento Mori for your Iphone

VANITAS. from Tale of Tales on Vimeo.

iPhone developers Tale of Tales recently released Vanitas, an intriguingly unique app they describe as “a memento mori for your digital hands.” Named after a style of still life paintings from the 16th and 17th century that feature symbols of death and impermanence, Vanitas is designed to invite contemplation on mortality.
--Laughing Squid, "Vanitas – A Digital Memento Mori For The iPhone"
Wow! What a truly surprising and delightful direction for game and interactive design! A bit digital looking to my taste, but I love the sentiment, and the serious attempt to revive the memento mori tradition for the digital age. I will be quite curious to see what kind of popularity such a product can achieve...

From the website:
VANITAS. A memento mori for your digital hands.
To lift you up when you're feeling down. And drag you down when you're up too high.

Everything flows, nothing remains.
Vanity of vanities, all is vanity!
Life is the farce we are all forced to endure.

Sometimes, when you're depressed, it's good to see something depressing.
A contemplation of the fleetingness of life. To help appreciate what you have.
A meditative experience. A spiritual toy. A reminder of the preciousness of life.

Referring to still life paintings from the 16th and 17th century, Vanitas presents you with a gorgeously rendered 3D box filled with intriguing objects. Close the box and open it again to see new objects. You can move the objects by tilting your iPhone or pushing and dragging the objects with your fingers. To create pleasant arrangements that inspire and enchant. Some objects decay. A flower blooms. A bubble pops. Life like an empty dream flits by...

Designed by Auriea Harvey & Michael Samyn. With cello music by Zoe Keating.

Made at the occasion of The Art History of Games symposium in February 2010 in Atlanta.
To see more, watch the application trailer above. You can find out more here, and can purchase the app--only $0.99!--by clicking here. Via Laughing Squid; click here to view the orignal post, which provides much more information.

Image: Vanitas Still Life (1650) by Aelbert Janszm, via Museumblogs.

Thursday, February 11, 2010

"Pandora's Box: Curiosity and the Dangerous Pursuit of Knowledge," Exhibition, Grant Museum, London

Above Image: © Jane Wildgoose 2009; All else my own.

Knowledge is a dangerous and unstable pursuit. In history and fiction it carries a health warning: Pandora unleashed all the troubles of the world when she lifted the lid of a particularly intriguing box. But from Adam and Eve to Bluebeard’s Castle, Icarus to the Manhattan Project, the prohibition against curiosity has been ignored. Pandora’s Box invites the visitor to inquire within – come what may...
The Grant Museum of Zoology at University College London--one of my favorite natural history museums!--has a rather exciting looking exhibition coming up. One of the participants is none other than Jane Wildgoose, photographer and keeper of the fabulous Wildgoose Memorial Library (you can see one of her lovely photos, to be featured in the exhibition, above, top); the other is a lovely artist I met recently in London named Amanda Schiff, whose artwork--entitled "While Sleeping, Watch!"--is featured in Wildgoose's photo beneath the skeleton.

As you can see by the other photos--taken myself over a series of perfectly ordinary, everyday visits to the Grant--this cabinet-like museum is something of a wunderkammer even without the addition of an art installation, and promises to be a perfect setting for a project of this scope. Can't wait to see the final product!

Full details:
Pandora's Box: Curiosity and the Dangerous Pursuit of Knowledge
Box assemblages and cabinets of curiosities by Amanda Schiff
Photographs by Jane Wildgoose
February 15th- June 11th 2010

Like a twenty first century alchemist, artist, filmmaker and writer Amanda Schiff transforms abandoned and forgotten objects into intriguing and unsettling narratives.

In her new installation at the Grant Museum of Zoology, Schiff, who describes herself as an excavator of ephemera, explores her fascination with things that have survived ‘by chance or miracle.’ In Pandora's Box she takes these orphaned objects, whose makers are long dead and whose purpose is outworn or forgotten, saturates them with fictional narratives and arranges them in a series of boxes. The resulting assemblages, constructed with a filmmaker’s eye for detail and a writer’s love of tall tales, are beguiling, and on occasion, sinister. They inhabit the ambiguous world of fairytales: superficially playful, with an unsettling underscore of dark secrets and obsessive interests.

Knowledge is a dangerous and unstable pursuit. In history and fiction it carries a health warning: Pandora unleashed all the troubles of the world when she lifted the lid of a particularly intriguing box. But from Adam and Eve to Bluebeard’s Castle, Icarus to the Manhattan Project, the prohibition against curiosity has been ignored. Pandora’s Box invites the visitor to inquire within – come what may. A cast of characters emerges: some identified in accompanying short stories, others hinted at by the cabinets of curiosities that they have made of their lives. The viewer, it soon becomes clear, is the missing element; their imagination is being called upon to complete the picture and resurrect the stories.

There are also new site-specific works in the Museum, investigating the convergence of alchemy and natural philosophy with the sciences during the Renaissance. Jane Wildgoose’s atmospheric and beautiful photographs of the boxes, taken with natural light in intriguing locations, provide context and further layers to the stories and images.

Amanda Schiff is a film producer, writer and lecturer in screenwriting. Her first exhibition was We are Shadows: Metamorphosis, Curiosities, Dark Tales at Eleven Spitalfields in June 2009. Her long film industry career has included stints at Columbia Pictures, the NFDF, Goldcrest and an eight-year partnership with producer Barbara Broccoli at Astoria Pictures, where they produced Crime of The Century. She graduated with an MA in Creative writing from Birkbeck, University of London. She is currently writing a novel and co-writing screenplays.

Jane Wildgoose is a NESTA (National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts) Fellow, artist, photographer, broadcaster and writer with a background in stage and film design. Since 2003 she has been Keeper of the Wildgoose Memorial Library, and is currently developing projects with museums in the UK and the US.
To find out more, click here. To visit the Grant Museum of Zoology at University College London website, click here. To find out more about Jane Wildgoose and her library, click here. Please click on images to see larger, more detailed versions; you can see more photos of the here. Also, thanks so much to friend and friend-of-the-blog Natasha McEnroe for allowing me to poke around the museum and stores with my camera, and for alerting me to this wonderful looking exhibition!

Images: Top image: a photo to be included in the exhibition, featuring an artwork by Amanda Schiff entitled "While Sleeping, Watch!," © Jane Wildgoose 2009; all other images taken by myself over various everyday visits to the Grant Museum.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Welcome, Jim Edmonson and Dittrick Museum, to the Blogosphere!

Friend, friend-of-Morbid-Anatomy, and co-author of the award winning book Dissection James Edmonson has recently brought his museum--the Dittrick Museum of Medical History--into the blogosphere, and in grand style. In the blog's less than 1 month existence, Jim has already managed to produce a number of interesting posts brimming with intelligence, infectious enthusiasm, and lovely images. Welcome to the blogosphere, Jim and crew! Nice to have you here.

You can check out Dittrick Museum blog by clicking here. You can visit the Dittrick Museum website by clicking here its Facebook fan by clicking here.

The top image is, I believe, a plate from master midwife Madame du Coudray’s Abrégé de l'art des accouchements [Summary of the art of childbirth] (1769). Bottom image is of an amazing late 18th century obstetric manikin recently acquired by the Dittrick. Both images are from the Dittrick blog's latest post entitled "Rare 18th century obstetric manikin comes to the Dittrick," which you can read in its entirety by clicking here.

Wet Specimen Collections in New York City?

Does anyone out there know of any collections of human anatomical wet specimens (as seen above, in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden) in New York City or nearby?

If so, please contact me at All leads appreciated. Thank you!

Image: Bernardus Siegfried Albinus Case in anatomy hall of Museum Boerhaave in Leiden, the Netherlands. All preparations by Albinus, Circa 1730. Caption reads: embryo in membranes, injected with red wax; child arm, holding the eye's vascular tissue; spinal column of human foetus. More images from the Museum Boerhaave can be seen here.

Sunday, February 7, 2010

"The Ossuary," Jan Švankmajer, 1970

To continue on the theme of bone chapels begun in my last post, thanks so much to Morbid Anatomy reader and commentator Mirloniger for pointing me in the direction of Jan Švankmajer--muse to the Brothers Quay--and his short film "Kostnice" (The Ossuary), devoted to the wonders of the Sedlec Ossuary in Kutná Hora, a truly epic bone chapel located in an ancient town near Prague in the Czech Republic. This film was commissioned in 1970 to celebrate the work of František Rint--the man responsible for the bone compositions that fill the chapel--on the centenary of the completion of his osteo-masterwork in 1870.

Kinoeye: New Perspectives on European Film describes the film thusly:
One of the neglected masterpieces produced during Švankmajer's early career is Kostnice (The Ossuary, 1970), a "horror documentary" shot in one of his country's most unique and bleakest monuments, the Sedlec Monastery Ossuary. The Sedlec Ossuary contains the bones of some 50 to 70 thousand people buried there since the Middle Ages. Over a period of a decade, they were fashioned by the Czech artist František Rint with his wife and two children into fascinating displays of shapes and objects, including skull pyramids, crosses, a monstrance and a chandelier containing every bone of the human body. Their work was completed in 1870, and these artifacts have been placed in the crypt of the Cistercian chapel as a memento mori for the contemplation of visitors.
You can watch the entire film above, or by clicking here. Click here to buy a copy of it from the Morbid Anatomy Bookstore. To see previous post on osteo-architecture, click here. To see a previous post on the art of the Brothers Quay, click here. More on the Sedlec Ossuary in Kutná Hora can be found by clicking here. Thanks, Mirloniger, for sending this along!

Thursday, February 4, 2010

"Death Takes A Holiday," Osteo-Architecture Travel Blog

The Portuguese have a morbid fascination with bone chapels (perhaps we can coin the term “osteo-architecture”), there are probably more here per capita than anywhere in the world...
Thanks to Friend-of-Morbid-Anatomy Paul Rumsey for drawing my attention to the astounding photo collection and travel reportage of self-named "LuDwigg VaNn beethoVeen​" as showcased on his MySpace Blog entitled "Death Takes a Holiday" and committed--or so it seems--to visiting and documenting the finest necropoli, “osteo-architecture," and concentrations of mummies and religious waxworks in the entire world, including sites in Ecuador, Greece, Portugal, Italy, and Newark, New Jersey.

The above sampling of images is just a tiny fraction of the many incredible images to be found on the blog. Please click on each one to see much larger and more detailed versions. To see many more astounding images and to find out more about these spectacular sites, visit his "Death Takes a Holiday" blog by clicking here. Thanks so much, Paul, for sending this amazing treasure trove along!

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Morbid Anatomy and Atlas Obscura Present a Private Viewing with Back-Stage Access at the Mütter Museum, Saturday, March 20th!

Morbid Anatomy is pleased to announce a special private viewing and back-stage tour of our favorite United States medical museum--Philadelphia's Mütter Museum--as the Morbid Anatomy contribution to the first annual Atlas Obscura day!

On Saturday March 20th --the first day of Spring!--the incomparable Mütter Museum will open its doors for a special private viewing open only to Atlas Obscura Day participants, as part of an international celebration of the obscure and the wondrous organized by the Atlas Obscura website. That means no struggling past crowds of people and screaming school groups to see the astounding exhibits and artifacts that made the Mütter famous; instead, enjoy a quiet, contemplative hour of museum time with only other Atlas Obscurites as your company. A rare and wonderful treat at such a (rightfully!) bustlingly popular museum!

As an added bonus, the first 12 people to arrive (and this is on a strictly first-come, first-served basis) will get a special behind-the-scenes tour of the museum by curator Anna Dhody. After the tour, Anna will remain in the galleries to answer your questions until the museum opens to the general public at 10 AM. Another bonus: All Atlas Obscura Day participants will be admitted to the museum at a reduced student rate of $10.

I will be present for the entire event in my role as co-presenter and hostess, and hope very much to see you all there! This will be a seriously not-to-be-missed occasion. Full details and links follow:
Atlas Obscura and Morbid Anatomy Present:
Private Viewing and Back-Room Access at Philadelphia's Mutter Museum

Saturday, March 20, 2010 from 9:00 AM - 10:00 AM (EST) (before museum opens!)
Mütter Museum: 19 South 22nd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103 [map]
Admission: $10

Join Atlas Obscura and Morbid Anatomy at the Mutter Museum for a private viewing of curious medical anomalies and human anatomy.

The museum will open early to provide a private view for Atlas Obscurites from 9-10 AM. The first 12 people (first come, first served!) to arrive will get special back-stage tours with curator Anna Dhody.

Participants will be able to explore a wondrous selection of specimens displayed in the same Victorian cabinets that the museum opened with in 1858. From the skeleton of the tallest man in North America to a collection of 2,000 objects extracted from people's throats the exhibits will be sure to convey a lesser-known side of medical history. Also of note are the conjoined twin skeletons and the plaster death cast of Chang and Eng, who lived their lives attached at their livers.
For more about the event, and to RSVP, click here. To find out about other Atlas Obscura-day events, click here. For more about the museum, including directions and collections, click here. And if you've not yet made yourself acquainted with the wonderful Atlas Obscura, you can do so by clicking here.

Also, a special thanks to Mütter Director and friend-of-Morbid-Anatomy Robert Hicks--and all the other wonderful staff at the Mütter Museum--for making this wonderful event happen!

All above images of the Mütter Museum are drawn from the Anatomical Theatre exhibition, a photo survey of medical museums of the Western world; Images 1-3 are front-stage views and images 4-5 are back-stage views. You can find out more by clicking here.

University of Pennsylvania, Practical Anatomy Course Certificate, 1869

Click on image to see much larger version. Via American Civil War Medical & Surgical Antiques.

The Skeletons of Waldsassen Basilica, Bavaria, Germany

Morbid Anatomy reader Malvina Panagiotidi of Athens, Greece, recently informed me of a fantastic phenomenon that I had never heard of: The Skeletons of Waldsassen Basilica. Here is what she had to say about them:
Waldsassen, a town in Bavaria in Germany, is famous for its Papal basilica in baroque style. The halls of the church have an unusual decoration. The skeletons of Christian martyrs, who were exhumed from the catacombs of Rome between 1688-1765, are situated in glass vitrines and embedded in the rest interior decoration of the church. They are also known as the ''Holy Bodies." What differentiates these skeletons from the standard skeletal relics is that they are dressed in extravagant 1700s royal costumes and covered in jewels. Each year the church celebrates these martyrs at the Holy Bodies Fest.
All images were sourced by Malivina from the wonderful Atlas Obscura, which also severed as her main bibliographic source; you can visit that original post by clicking here. You can find additional images on these Flickr accounts: 1, 2.

Thanks so much, Malvina, for sending this along!

Monday, February 1, 2010

Nineteenth-Century Wax Model Exhibited by Jean-Martin Charcot from the Salpêtrière (Addendum to Previous Post) addition there were two special exhibits. The renowned neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) brought over from Paris a life-size wax model of a recumbent woman with locomotor ataxy and disordered joints, together with her preserved skeleton, illustrating one of Charcot's many clinical discoveries; and Jonathan Hutchinson, the chairman of the Museum Committee, organized an "Exhibition of Living Patients"...
Morbid Anatomy reader Alexis Kinloch just this morning sent me an article that, synchronicitously (is that a word?), featured a photograph of the very wax model described in today's earlier Morbid Anatomy post "The Exhibition of Living Patients, 1881 London, England," as detailed in the above epigraph excerpted from that post.

The caption to the image reads: "Nineteenth-Century wax model of a hysteric from the Salpêtrière" (photo: archives de l'Assistance publique); Click on image to see larger version. You can see the specific reference to the waxwork in the epigraph above; You can read the entire original post from which this excerpt was drawn by clicking here. The article showcasing the image is entitled “Effroyable Réalisme”: Wax, Femininity, and the Madness of Realist Fantasies" and was written by Mary Hunter of McGill University and included in the Canadian Art Review (RACAR); to find out more about the journal, click here.

Thanks so very much, Alixis, for sending this along!

"The Exhibition of Living Patients, 1881" London, England

I just came across a really fascinating entry on the Wellcome Library blog about a sort of temporary museum put together for an 1881 London medical conference that featured the exhibition of living patients. One especially intriguing excerpt reads:
The organizers of the Congress decided to include among the attractions a museum in which specimens of one sort or another could be shown. These were mainly drawings, photographs and casts, but in addition there were two special exhibits. The renowned neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) brought over from Paris a life-size wax model of a recumbent woman with locomotor ataxy and disordered joints, together with her preserved skeleton, illustrating one of Charcot's many clinical discoveries; and Jonathan Hutchinson, the chairman of the Museum Committee, organized an "Exhibition of Living Patients".

The Exhibition of Living Patients was something of an experiment, and it turned out to be a victim of its own success. It was allotted one of two rooms (the museum room and the boardroom) of the Geological Society, one of the Learned Societies which have been housed since 1874 in magnificent buildings around the courtyard of Burlington House on Piccadilly.

According to Hutchinson there was "confusion and crowding … Our exhibition was more popular than we had expected: every morning at the hour announced, the room filled. The weather chanced to be very hot [this was the first week of August], and as the room looked into Piccadilly, it was exceedingly noisy." One of the reasons for the noise was that, while the hubbub of Piccadilly entered through the open windows, not only did the doctors presenting their patients have to speak over it but at the same time visitors were continually jostling in and out of the crowded room. [1]

For those who could get near it, the exhibition was evidently quite a sight. Beneath the chandeliers in the fine rooms sat seven patients with leprosy, four of them supplied by Hutchinson. Six patients with diseases designated as myxoedema sat in a row and "the peculiarities of their features, and the sameness in their peculiarities, became very conspicuous"...
You can read the entire post, and find out much more, by clicking here. You can find out more about the utterly amazing Wellcome Library--which I spent many happy hours in during my last visit to London--by clicking here. All images are sourced from the original post, and are, in the words of the post, "believed to be strays from Jonathan Hutchinson's 'Clinical Museum', though their connection with Hutchinson is at present only circumstantial;" Captions read: Paintings commissioned by Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, ca. 1891-1906. no. 18.; Top image: "A man with Lupus erythematosus. Watercolour by Mabel Green, 1902." Bottom image: The shin of a boy with a rash; rolled trouser-leg and sock in place. Watercolour by Mabel Green, 1896.